Polyvinyl chloride, commonly known as PVC, is more cost-effective than other materials, resists cracking, isn't affected by acids, and can be rigid or flexible. Because of its strength and resilience, PVC is used for many things. Depending on its width, it can be used to move liquid and gases safely. Owing to its composition, PVC is limited to carrying liquids at temperatures less than 140 degrees, making PVC unsuitable for carrying hot water.
CPVC has similar uses as PVC, but because of the chlorinating process, CPVC is able to withstand higher pressures and temperatures. CPVC has an upper temperature tolerance of 180 degrees, so it can be used for hot water pipes which contribute to its popularity as a material for water piping systems in residential as well as commercial construction.
DWV fittings are used for drainage, waste, and venting in residential and commercial sanitary systems. The piping must be DWV rated. DWV systems maintain neutral air pressure in the drains, allowing the flow of water and sewage down drains and through waste pipes by gravity. As such, it is critical that a downward slope be maintained throughout.
Schedule 40 fittings are pressure fittings used for potable water, chilled water, irrigation, golf courses, and pools/spa applications. Applications with high water pressure may require Schedule 80 PVC. Both Schedule 40 and 80 PVC are used widely around the world. Each one has its benefits in different applications. Schedule 40 has thinner walls, so it is best for applications involving relatively low water pressure. Schedule 80 has thicker walls and is able to withstand a higher PSI. This makes it ideal for industrial and chemical applications.
PVC Insert Fittings are most commonly used in irrigation systems. They have barbed end connections, which is ideal for a tightly gripped seal. The barbs mean that no adhesives are necessary, and they are NSF Certified for use with potable water.
CPVC Schedule 80 fittings have exceptional chemical and corrosion resistance. Ideal as an alternative to metal, these fittings never rust, scale or pit, and provide extended system life guaranteeing years of maintenance-free service. With higher temperature rating, higher flow capacity and lower installation costs, these fittings are useful for a wide range of applications including hot and corrosive liquids.
PVC fittings may either have spigot or hub/slip end connections. A spigot end is the equivalent of a male end, and a hub/slip (socket) end is the equivalent of a female end. A spigot end fits into a hub/slip (socket) end. PVC pipe has spigot ends and must connect to hub connections on both ends. PVC fittings are solvent welded to PVC pipe using PVC cement. PVC cement is sticky like glue, but it actually melts plastic, creating a weld between PVC pipe and a fitting.